401(k)提款的高价

生活有一种向我们抛出曲线球的方式。和他们’非常善于浪费我们的钱—especially if we’re not prepared. 您’ve heard of Murphy’法律,对不对?任何可能出错的地方都会出错。墨菲很粗鲁。他没有’他出现时甚至敲门—他只是踢开门!

冠状病毒大流行是许多美国人见过的最大的金融危机。如果你’现在由于担心紧急开支或还清债务而感到恐惧,您可能会想从401(k)中拿钱,尤其是考虑到国会最近通过的CARES法案中的新漏洞。

But is a 401(k) withdrawal a good idea? 让’s跳到细节中找出答案。

401k提早罚款

If 您 take money out of 您r traditional 401(k) before age 59 1/2, 您’ll get hit with two big bills when 您 file 您r next tax return:

  1. Income taxes on 您r withdrawal
  2. 提早罚款10%

让’s say 您 make $60,000 a year 和 您 withdraw $20,000 from 您r 401(k) to pay for medical bills. 您’re in the 22% tax bracket, which means 那 Uncle Sam pockets $4,400 of 您r 401(k) money for income taxes $2,000 for 那 10% penalty. In the end, 您’re 只要 left with $13,600 of 您r original $20,000. That’太离谱了!有更好的付款方式。

But taxes 和 penalties are just the beginning of the money 您’ve lost. 您’re also robbing from 您r future self. 这里’s what I mean: 让’s say 您 left 那 $20,000 alone for 25 years 和 it averaged a 10% annual growth rate in a good mutual fund. 那$ 20,000最终将超过$ 240,000, 和 您’d甚至不必松开手指!

这里’s the reality: 您r 401(k)是退休帐户 那’专为长期财富积累而设计。它’s not 应该 to pay for emergencies or be 您r college tuition fund for little Suzy. 

401k难度取款情况如何?

A 困难退出 is a special circumstance when the IRS allows 您 to take money out of 您r 401(k) without the 10% withdrawal fee (although 您’仍然需要缴纳所得税)。

根据美国国税局, a 困难退出 applies to people in an “紧急或急需。”这些情况适用于您,您的配偶或家属。顺便说一句,美国国税局(IRS)确保在这里扔下这个限定词:“购买船只或电视的费用通常不符合艰苦条件。”1  Hold up . . . is 那 the IRS making jokes?

These six circumstances qualify for a 困难退出:

  1. 医疗费 
  2. 与购买主要住所有关的费用
  3. 学费及相关教育费用
  4. Payments necessary to prevent eviction or foreclosure (of 您r primary residence)
  5. 丧葬费
  6. Certain expenses to repair damage to 您r principal residence2

此外,我还要在这里提及,2019年12月通过的《安全法》(SECURE Act)使新父母可以选择提取最高5,000美元的免罚金,以支付新孩子的生育或收养费用。3

Keep in mind 那 each retirement plan varies, 和 您r employer is not required to make 困难退出s an option for 您r plan. For example, some may not allow for tuition expenses, 和 others 做 . Check with 您r HR department if 您 have questions about 您r specific plan.

Hear me on this, people: Even if 您 qualify for a 困难退出, it’s a bad idea to raid 您r own 窝蛋. 您’ll still have to pay income taxes, plus 您’ll miss out on compound growth of the money 您 take out.

401(k)根据CARES法案提款

CARES法是一项联邦刺激方案,已于3月27日签署成为法律,它创造了一种新型的“hardship withdrawal”帮助遭受冠状病毒大流行打击的人。那些因病毒而失业,生病,或照顾生病的配偶或家属的人可以从退休帐户中提款,而无需支付10%的提款罚金。再一次,你’尽管有提款金额,但仍需缴纳所得税’灵活的还款方式—您可以根据需要在三年内缴纳税款。4

您 can take up to $100,000 for these types of withdrawals:

  • 401(k)分配
  • 401(k)贷款
  • 退休帐户退出

两者之间的区别 401(k)贷款 和分配是​​,分配时,您只是硬着头皮现在支付税款,但是有了贷款,您就可以’re 应该 to “repay 您rself”最终,因此您避免纳税。通常,一笔401(k)贷款仅允许借款人承担50,000美元,但《 CARES法案》在接下来的六个月内将正常金额增加了一倍。

Should 您 Withdraw Money Early From 您r 401k?

答案是 大号: It’s 几乎从不 the right decision. There are three reasons why 您 shouldn’t turn to 您r 401(k) to pay 做 wn debt or emergency expenses: 

1. 您’重新支付大量的费用和罚款。 

We’ve already been over this, but let me remind 您 one more time: When 您 take an early distribution from 您r 401(k), 您’我将用这笔钱缴纳山姆大叔的所得税以及10%的提款费。

2. 您’re robbing 您r retirement dreams. 

所有财务中最强大的两个力量是时间和复合增长。想到为退休储蓄就像种一棵树。大多数树木要达到最高高度需要数十年的时间。如果您现在耗尽401(k),它’就像拔树—you’我将不得不从一个小的种子重新开始。

3. 您’重新执行错误的财务游戏计划。 

I’我是个运动大手,所以让我比喻足球。从您的401(k)中取出钱就像扔了一张“冰雹玛丽”通行证—it’解决绝望问题的最后尝试。那’人们不是冠军的比赛方式!通过不断地执行久经考验的游戏计划来赢得胜利,他们才能获胜。 

The 只要 time 您 should withdraw money from or cash out 您r 401(k) is to avoid bankruptcy or foreclosure—and 那’s 只要 if 您’ve exhausted all other options, like taking on extra jobs 和 a short sale on 您r house.

您 Have Better Options Than Draining 您r 401(k) 

听着,我明白—a big, unexpected expense or a job loss will make 您 feel overwhelmed, frightened 和 trapped. So, 您 need to hear this: 您 有选择,他们’re much better than robbing 您r retirement fund. It might take some sacrifice, but if 您 stay focused, I know 您 can overcome this.

Instead of taking money from 您r 401(k), I want 您 to try one or all of these options:

  • 进入保护模式. If 您’在真正的金融危机中’s time to cut all unnecessary spending: the gym, entertainment 和 online shopping. It might even be time to sell 您r car. 节省预算 并控制您的资金。现在,如果你’重新从退休中拿钱为孩子上学,然后’是时候进行一些真正的交谈了。你不’不必支付初级’的梦想学校。您和您的孩子可以选择让他们通过大学免债’涉及从退休中偷窃。
  • 制定付款计划. Whether 您 owe money to the IRS or to a lender, call them up 和 explain 您r situation. See if 您 can break out 那 big amount into smaller payments over a set period of time.
  • 向家人或朋友寻求帮助。不,我’我不建议您向他们要钱,但您也许可以得到一些非金钱的帮助。也许您可以通过要求父母照顾孩子来节省托儿费用。或者如果你’在一个非常绝望的地方,例如无法支付房租,您可以和家人一起住直到您’重新站起来。
  • 承担额外的工作。它’s a temporary sacrifice 那 sets 您 up for long-term success. Debt keeps 您 trapped. And borrowing from 您r 401(k) robs 您 of 您r future. Do what 您 have to 做 right now to keep from adding to 您r debt or draining 您r 401(k).

让’s go back to 那 football analogy. If 您 want to play like a champion, 您 need a game plan for 您r money. It’s called the 7个婴儿步骤—the proven plan for getting out of debt 和 building wealth. If 您 take these steps, 您’ll put 您rself in a position where 您 never feel tempted to withdraw from 您r 401(k) again.

选择希望胜过恐惧

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